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      電影時間!這次說一說后現代主義第1張圖片

      探索后現代主義建筑與城市的4部電影
      4 Films to Explore Postmodernism in Architecture and Urbanism

      由專筑網小R,邢子編譯

      芬蘭建筑師兼教授Juhani Pallasmaa曾經說過:“建筑師及其他專業人士如果對建筑與城市規劃真正感興趣,那么他們一定會去研究電影,因為這能給自己的專業帶來更加微妙與靈敏的視角!庇捎陔娪暗募夹g與美學特殊性,讓概念以簡約的方式得以表達,使之成為傳達建筑與城市空間的概念與思想的強大工具。

      電影作品所帶來的自由性與空間時間流動性讓其呈現出來的空間更加接近想象,因此,建筑與城市也會在觀眾的眼中成為分散的碎片,人們會通過圖像與感受將記憶碎片連接起來。

      流動性與模糊性是電影圖像的典型特征,而這種特征類似于20世紀下半葉流行的建筑與城市規劃之中的后現代主義,在這種概念中,有著種類繁多的思想與風格,因此也構成了建筑領域理論與實踐的廣義理念。就此而言,電影能夠幫助人們理解建筑領域后現代主義的各種想法。

      以下是四部結合城市主義與建筑領域后現代主義的多方面概念的電影:

      "Films have been studied by architects and other professionals who are interested in the field of architecture and urbanism because they offer a more subtle and responsive perspective of our discipline," Finnish Architect and Professor Juhani Pallasmaa tells us. Through its technical and aesthetical particularities, the cinema can go beyond simple representation to be a powerful instrument for conveying ideas and concepts related to architecture and urban space.
      The freedom and space-time fluidity provided by film production bring the spaces represented in movies closer to the immateriality of imagination - even when filmed in real locations. Thus, architectures and cities are transformed into a fragmented network of spaces in the mind of the viewer - connecting memories with other images, experienced or witnessed.
      This kind of fluidity and absence of precise definitions, which are typical of cinematographic images, can be compared to the post-modern ideas that spread in architecture and urbanism from the second half of the 20th century onwards, in which the profusion of different points of view made up a larger image of the theoretical and practical panorama in the field of architecture. In that sense, movies can be a good contribution to understanding the fragmentation of thought that has characterized postmodernism in architecture.
      Below are four films that address several aspects of postmodernism in urbanism and architecture:


      控制的慶典——《楚門的世界》/ Peter Weir, 1998

      電影時間!這次說一說后現代主義第2張圖片

      楚門是歷史上最真實的真人秀主角,他自己始終不知道,他出生以來,就有數千臺攝影機不斷地對著他,他身邊的人們都來自于電視節目的安排,他所經歷的風景同樣也來自于虛構,例如組織良好的城市、獨棟的住宅、美麗的花園、高素質的市民等等。這部電影的布局源于美國城市主義,準確真實地表達了人性的特征,而楚門始終不知道自己在其中的位置。

      Celebration of Control - The Truman Show (Peter Weir, 1998)
      Truman is the main character in the biggest reality show ever produced - but he doesn't know it. Since he was born, thousands of cameras have followed his life and everyone around him is part of a huge television production. The scenery is no less fictional: an absolutely organized city, with single-family homes isolated in their lots, perfectly mown gardens and good citizens. Designed along the lines of the new American urbanism, the show's scenery is a precise reflection of the superficiality of the characters and of the actual TV program, in which Truman, without knowing, plays the leading role.


      反烏托邦的技術——《銀翼殺手》/ Ridley Scott, 1982

      電影時間!這次說一說后現代主義第3張圖片

      城市未來的反烏托邦視角也是電影與建筑之間的交匯點,電影《銀翼殺手》就是很好的案例,電影虛構了洛杉磯城市,這座?厣鐣诤狭嗽S多建筑特征,這源自于多年的發展,但是它們彼此之間卻格格不入,從而也構成了混合型的社會。整個電影的環境是后現代反烏托邦主義的宣言,而這種宣言則來源于后工業時代的資本主義霸權。

      Technological Dystopias - Blade Runner (Ridley Scott, 1982)
      Dystopian visions of the future of cities also make up the spectrum of intersections between architecture and cinema. An example of this is the film Blade Runner, that features a fictional city (San Angeles), which is the result of a new cybernetic society that combines different architectural styles, as a result of years of hybrid usage of spaces and structures, often not compatible, ultimately resulting in residual spaces. Its environments are dystopian manifestations of postmodernism granted by the capitalist supremacy of the post-industrial era.


      郊區化生活——《低俗小說》/ Quentin Tarantino, 1994

      電影時間!這次說一說后現代主義第4張圖片

      Quentin Tarantino將普通城市的郊區作為故事發生的背景,這里有失業者、殺人犯、女服務員、路邊酒店,各個元素在這里混合為“骯臟現實主義”的故事情節,而這些情節也可以發生于任何一座城市。美國城市的各種現象也出現在電影之中,低密度城市成為一種隱喻,人們的心中常常缺乏歸屬感與場所精神。

      Suburbanization of Life - Pulp Fiction (Quentin Tarantino, 1994)
      Quentin Tarantino portrays the suburbs of a generic city as the backdrop to a series of ordinary stories: unemployed people, murderers, waitresses, and roadside hotels make up a plot that fits into what might be called dirty realism, which can unfold in any part of the world. The sprawling phenomenon of American cities can be seen in several locations in the film, and the low urban density can serve as a metaphor for a kind of scarcity of the sense of place that is found alongside the characters' psyche.


      場所的抑制——《柏林蒼穹下》/ Wim Wenders, 1987

      電影時間!這次說一說后現代主義第5張圖片

      電影《柏林蒼穹下》的故事發生于柏林墻倒塌之前。整座城市支離破碎、雜亂無章,這些印象來自于當地的居民。建筑與城市,亦或是一片廢墟,觸動了人們的心弦,觸發了親密的場所記憶,而這些記憶不只是缺席的存在,也是他們腦;蛐撵`中的情感投射。

      Suppression of Places - Wings of Desire (Wim Wenders, 1987)
      Wings of Desire takes place in Berlin, just before the fall of the wall. Fragmented, the city is presented as an overlapping of rags that are uncoordinated and devoid of memory - a condition reflected by its inhabitants. Architecture and the city, or the emptiness left by them, reach the characters' psyche, triggering intimate and particular memories of places that now only exist as the presence of an absence, or as the intimate projection of their own minds and emotions.

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