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      一般的公眾對于大規;蚝暧^公園的刻板印象總是一片片巨大的開放的綠色空間,里面有的是森林、濕地、湖泊、草甸、溪流、橋梁、小路和長廊,規模如此巨大,以致生動地展現出氣候、地質、稠密的植被和開闊的地平線。盡管大量的宏觀公園都是把風景地貌整合入都市圈,提供了舒適的、多樣的和復雜的空間,但這不意味著這些公園就非得模擬鄉村的田園場景,也不一定要向美術那樣按正式的手續注冊,指明它們的坐標和透視圖。這些巨大的實驗自然保護區應該成為自然的露天劇院,演繹了自然時間、社會用途和事件。這些公園必須提供一系列豐富的社會交往和活動,鞏固歸屬感和社區或公民身份的概念。所有的這些都將在一個徘徊的軀體上展現,他總在獨處、預想逃離和開放的前景、開放的社會空間框架之間飄忽不定,有時只是一些有關自身渺小而私密的事情,有時又是重大的牽涉到集體的不朽的事件。
      盡管宏觀公園提供了舒適的開放空間,充當了文化試驗地,但它們依然面臨著其他的挑戰。宏觀公園要求為運營和維持花費制定意外開支策略,因為在財政疲軟時期,這些公園將會是遭遇預算削減的首批對象;而且,還因為它們隨時會面臨改造以及迎接再發現。
      盡管創造這些公園的基本原理和基本途徑是一種愉快的物理和文化體驗,但卻少有人明白其中隱含的生態、運作和規劃的意味。然而,今天這些問題已經變得越來越重要。畢竟,宏觀公園并不是一處簡單的自然區域,而是需要計劃、需要建設、需要培育和設計的,因此也就受制于幾何學、材料和組織方面的發明創造。

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      For the public in general, large – scale, or macro, parks evoke visceral images of larges of open green space, full of forests, wetlands, lakes, meadows, streams, bridges, paths and promenades on a scale that allows the dramatic exposition to the climate, geology, dense vegetation and open horizons. While extensive macro – parks are landscapes that are integrated into metropolitan areas, providing pleasant, diverse and complex spaces, it is not necessary that these parks have to simulate rural pastoral scenes, nor register with the formality of fine arts with their axes and perspectives. These large experimental reserves should be open – air theaters of nature, scenarios for the performance of natural time, the social use and the event. And they must provide a rich array of social interactions and activities that solidify the notion of belonging, of community or citizenship. All of this is revealed in a wandering body, in sequences alternating between spaces of isolation and lookouts of getaways and open perspectives, an open framework of social spaces, some small and intimate, some large, monumental and collective.
      The macro – parks, while providing a pleasant use of the open space and serve as cultural experiments, should present other challenges. Operating and maintenance costs require contingency strategies for moments of weak finances, as they are the first to suffer budget cuts; moreover, because they have to be prepared for a permanent adaptation or reinvention.
      Although the rationale and fundamental approach to the creation of these parks is a pleasant physical and cultural experience, the ecological, operational and programming aspects are less obvious and less understood. However, today these issues have become more important. After all, macro – parks are not simple natural areas but are planned, constructed, cultivated and designed and are, therefore, subject to geometric, material and organizational inventions.

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      今天,在設計宏觀公園時遭遇的重大問題之一就是比例問題,預先設定的形式總會在意義和內容方面受到開放過程的影響。
      宏觀公園不是只由一個人講訴的故事,它的發展總是超過原創設計師的期望,總是會圍繞著不可預知的因素發展。它們是復雜的動態系統,因此,設計師只能渴求規定一個大概的物理基礎,而隨后的發展過程和形成則更加的開放。隨著時間的發展和重大交互是否會創造出差異性,依據的是人們對這個物理基礎或層狀網絡的理解。一個有用的訣竅是設計一個框架、模型和目錄,使得公園的結構能夠在統一的框架下,靈活調整,迎合未來的綱領性和環境要求。
      COMFAMA原子核宏觀公園的面積受到兩個敏感因素的影響:相當保守的生態保護狀態和預先存在的還未被調查與研究的考古遺址。這些條件不可避免地需要幾組專家積極參與協商,達成概念上的一致。
      這些預先存在的條件要求制定高度靈活的項目策略,可以為一般的調節或總體規劃和特定場址的實施提供幾個可選的選項。

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      Today, one of the big questions in the design of macro – parks is the proportion in which the pre – established forms interact with open processes in relation to the meaning and content.
      The macro – parks will always exceed singular narratives, will always surpass the desire of authorship of designers and will evolve around unpredictable aspects. They are complex, dynamic systems and, as such, designers can aspire to establish a highly specified schematic physical basis in which the more open processes and formations can take root. The diversity of growth and significant interactivity that can be supported through time depends on the understanding of this foundation basis, or layer net. The trick is to design a framework, a matrix and a catalogue that will allow the park structures to absorb future programmatic and environmental requirements under an identity that enables great flexibility.
      The area of the COMFAMA Nucleus macro – park is affected by two factors of great sensitivity: a condition of rather - conservative ecological protection and a pre – existence of archaeological sites not yet surveyed and studied. These conditions require the active, definite participation of several groups of specialists that will inevitably involve processes of negotiation and conceptual consensus.
      These pre – existing conditions demand a highly flexible project strategy that allows several options of general accommodation or the master plan and the implementation of specific sites.

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      最終確定選擇一個排除了嚴格的物理預想的設計策略,因為事先的物理設想會妨礙不同的專家對設計、建設和實施過程的干預。這個設計策略必須將保留好每個具體位置上的生態和考古發現;谶@個原因,一個“棋子”系統被創造出來,其中,把宏觀公園的領土范圍比擬為一個棋盤,當變量出現時,允許執行一系列的動作或是策略舉措。
      這些棋子應該避免由于各路專業或管理團隊的介入而導致的公園性質的任何曲解。
      這個由多個精密的部分組成的開放的系統給予這個項目某種程度的對抗死板的主觀性的免疫力,同時使得能夠由預先存在的條件誘導出具有一定隨意性的多重結構。這些背景條件積極地與建筑設計鋪墊彼此交互。

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      It was decided to opt for a design strategy that ruled out a rigorous physical prefiguring because it would hamper the intervention of the different specialists during the design, construction and implementation process. It needed to be a strategy that would save the ecological and archaeological findings in each specific location. For this reason a system of “chess pieces” was created to understand the territory as a large game board and allow the execution of a series of movements or strategic moves as the variables appeared.
      These pieces should avoid any distortion of the nature of the park caused by the intervention of the different professionals or administrative teams.
      This open system of precise parts gives the project a kind of immunization against a formalist subjectivity and simultaneously enables multiple configurations with a degree of arbitrariness, induced by the pre – existing conditions. The conditions of the context interact actively with the architectural foreshadowing.

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      棋盤游戲無疑是達成協議的最好的機制,在這個機制中,由精確的規則、指令和方法引導差異。而對于公園,協議在三個要點下制定:
      1-人類學:
      強調對歷史文物的紀念和尊敬,考慮公園是否接近本土墓地和礦藏,是否會侵害到花卉種植的傳統;
      2-技術:
      促進環境教育,提高對自然資源的合理利用,為普遍應用發展技術模型,以幫助建設可持續性建筑以及研究和發展光合作用綠色屋頂
      3-藝術:
      經營一個大規模的大地藝術作品,其中,整個的領土被看作是一幅巨大的帆布或是一個表演空間。將其作為莊嚴搜索的參照,比如秘魯的納斯卡航線,尋找從空中欣賞的新的地形:更具天體演化性的觀點內的地鐵電纜、航空和自然守望者。

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      The game is par excellence the best mechanism for agreement, in which the differences are channeled by the precise rules, instructions and approaches. In the case of the park, the agreements are framed within three main emphases:
      1 - Anthropology:
      to highlight the memory and respect for historical relics, considering the proximity to indigenous cemeteries, mining, and the tradition of growing flowers;
      2 - Technology:
      to promote environmental education and good use of natural resources, developing technological models for universal application as a contribution to sustainable architecture and implementing research and development and photosynthetic green roofs;
      3 - Artistic:
      To run a large – scale work of Land Art, where the entire territory is seen as a large canvas or performance space, having as reference sublime searches such as the Nazca lines in Peru, finding a new landscape to be appreciated from the air: Metrocable, aviation and natural lookouts within a more cosmogonic view.

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      定義了三個關鍵點:
      To populate the park, three key tokens or pieces were defined:

      SILLETA
      Silletas伴護著通往公園的人行道。Silleta建筑的傾斜的屋頂花園接收參觀者,為他們指示提供基本服務的位置。建筑的幾何結構開始于一個向一端傾斜、邊長為12米的四方形;一些邊上下降了兩個坡道,通過減少靈活性,促進游客的進入。它的輕量級的金屬結構允許它包含一個內部的結晶區域,保證了屋頂花園和室內的自然采光。
      顏色照下了這些結構的陰影,使得用戶可以辨認出Silleta的類型。為了實現這一點,依據特殊的用途,建立起了7個內部分區:洗手間、醫務室、教室、自助餐廳、詢問處、通訊室和導游中心。

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      SILLETA提供了地表來種植花卉,基于參與式設計,以當代人的視角繼續該區域的種植傳統。在這個參與式的設計中,來自全球各地的藝術家匯聚在一起,年輕的一代也通過數字攝影和軟件程序上塑性研究的發展,參與了設計過程。這些構成保障了基本的服務計劃的實施,比如:信息傳遞、集體訓練、環境衛生、營養和水合作用站、急救等。這個容器將總是保持不變,只有內部的建筑會出現變化。這個部件將會具有交替式功能,比如螢火蟲會在夜里為行人指示主路徑的方向。這種大版式的燈將不會對栽培的土表施加過多的重量。
      這些silleta將會在主路徑的兩邊,彼此相距大約150米而放置。步行者將能夠從這些觀景窗欣賞耕作的土表,因為silletas的高度較低。
      這些silleta只有從道路的連接輔路徑的另一邊望過去才清晰可見。因為所處的位置,它們將可以暫時為行人提供半路上的歇腳點。仰視這些silleta,會發現它們如同彗星一樣,正準備起飛。它們外表輕盈,讓人讀出家具特有的暫時與靈活的意味。

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      The Silletas accompany the footpath leading into the park. The sloping roof garden of the Silleta buildings receives visitors and indicates where the spaces for basic services are located. The geometry of the building begins with a square, 12 meters on each side, which is inclined on one end; access is made by descending two ramps on the sides that facilitate entry by those with reduced mobility. Its lightweight metallic structure allows it to contain an internal crystallized area that ensures natural lighting in both the roof garden as well as the interior.

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      The color appears to shade the spaces, allowing the user to identify the type of Silleta. To do this, seven internal distributions were established, according to the same number of specific uses: restrooms, infirmary, classrooms, cafeteria, information booth, communication rooms and tour guide center.
      which provides the cover for the cultivation of flowers and continues the tradition of the area with a contemporary perspective, based on a participatory design that allows the coming together of artists from around the world and that leads to the participation of younger generations through digital photography and the development of plastics research through software programs. These structures are responsible for safeguarding the basic – service programs such as: information, group training, sanitation, nutrition and hydration stations, first aid, etc. The container will always remain the same and only the internal architecture will present variations. This piece will have alternating functions, such as fireflies in the night that guide walkers along the main paths. This condition of large – format lamp will produce an effect of weightlessness on the cultivated surface.
      The silletas are arranged at an approximate distance of 150 meters between each and will be placed on the sides of main roads. From these routes the walkers will be able to appreciate the cultivated surfaces, since the silletas are at lower elevations.
      The program will be evident only from the opposite side of the road, from which the secondary paths are approached. Because of its location it will have a function of temporary stations and shelters. Appreciated from lower angles, the structures take on an aspect of comets ready to initiate a takeoff. This apparent lightness gives them a reading of temporality or mobility proper to furniture.

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      THE CENTIPEDE
      “蜈蚣”
      “蜈蚣”輕輕地支撐在地形上。每個模塊的四個混凝土柱使得建筑物可以懸停在地勢的上方。根據不同的角度,這些模塊被聯接起來,引導這些建筑物隨著土地的輪廓線起伏,或是越過一些地形。每一個“蜈蚣”模塊的活動都因露臺和木制陽臺的存在而變得更加豐富,比如,可以在這些隱沒在森林里的平臺上發現風景。
      綠色的屋頂給人一種建筑物已融合在了環境里的觸動。

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      在“蜈蚣”上同樣也有覆蓋有土表,但這些土表上培育的大片的綠色是那些通常被歸類為野草或普通牧草的品種。
      這個部件實際上是由8到10個模塊串聯而成(每個模塊有4只“腳”或是支柱伸向地面),貼合了土地的幾何輪廓。從概念上來講,這是一個適于居住的海拔。每一個100平方的模塊的內部都可以調整來滿足特殊的需要,永遠允許人們在這里休養身心。這些“蜈蚣”通過組合13個覆蓋幾何形狀,可以呈現多種的版本。這是一個開放性的結構配置,目的在于減少100%的土壤移除,避免它的湖上住宅的支撐物阻塞了徑流和生物體的流動。
      這個“蜈蚣”將包含有管理處、訓練場所、商業會議廳、專為考古學家指定的消遣庇護所。
      這個“蜈蚣”將會應用于斜坡的中部,高度適中。從上面的小路可以欣賞它的綠色的屋頂,從它前面較遠的地方則可享受到它廣闊而美麗的前景。

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      THE CENTIPEDE
      The Centipede is lightly supported on the terrain. Four concrete columns per module allow the building to be suspended over the topography. The modules are coupled according to different angles and lead these horizontal constructions to follow the movement of the contour lines or to skip some landforms. Each Centipede module extends its activity on terraces and wooden balconies, which are platforms in the forest to discover the landscape. The green roof gives the sensation that the building is immersed in the environment.

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      also has covers but in this case the green of extensive crops used to propagate species that are generally classified as weeds or common pastures.
      This piece actually consists of the concatenation of eight to ten modules (each with four “legs” or supports to the field), enabling the geometric accommodation of the contours of the land. Conceptually this is an inhabited elevation Each 100 – square – module may be internally conditioned to the specific needs, in order to allow permanent adjustments. These centipedes can be foreshadowed in multiple versions through the combination of 13 cover geometries. This is an open – structure configuration, which aims to reduce 100% of the earth movements and avoid obstructing runoffs and the flows of living organisms with its palafitte support.
      The centipede will house the administration and training programs, business meetings, directed recreation and shelter for archaeological specialists.
      The centipedes will be implemented mid-slope at intermediate elevations, allowing the appreciation of the green roofs from the paths above and enjoy a distant vision of the beautiful scenery from its large lookouts.

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      LA GUACA
      Guacas的空間是出現在地面上的一個突起。Guacas是由起動態中央元素作用的混凝土六邊形結構支撐的。每一個Guaca都展露了三個入口坡道,生動直接地和風景地貌相連,看上起就像地面上的線形裂縫。
      Guacas住宅文化設計與藝術相關:展示了考古學物件或是考古事件,而聽眾席中則流傳著類似的主題。這些Guacas足有6米高,在最高點處有閑置的空間,使得稍微復雜的活動或事件能夠在建筑物周界內找到支持設施,包括那些特殊用途的場所:特別會議室、化妝室和技術室。
      LA GUACA的目標在于把自身平衡在一個充滿神秘的和異想天開的數據的文化方面中,推測這個Arví領土上的原住民的埋葬傳統。這些地下結構停留在更為顯著的山頂,延續了當地使用守護山作為天文臺和必要的參考的傳統。
      因為這些大型的圍墻都位于地下,所以不會對公園的自然環境造成負面的影響。這些人造的土丘將容納文化類節目在這里舉行,比如由復雜的科技設備營造的劇院、娛樂和交互空間,與周圍的自然環境相比,著實是令人驚喜的“發現”。
      它的外部也充當了進行天文觀察的平臺。
      它的內部分成了多個節段,在不同的圍墻內的規模不同,一系列的天窗確保了空間效應。

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      LA GUACA
      The Guacas spatiality emerge as the ground is dug. The Guacas are supported by concrete hexagonal structured that operate as dynamic central elements. Each reveals three access ramps that are seen as linear cracks in the ground, establishing a direct and dramatic connection with the landscape.
      The Guacas house cultural programming related to art: the exhibition of archaeological objects or events with similar themes to be carried out in auditoriums. Their height, six meters free at the highest point, allow somewhat complex activities or events that can find support in the perimeter areas of the building, including those with specific uses: restrooms, special meeting rooms, dressing rooms and technical rooms.
      Aims to balance itself in one aspect of culture that is full of mystery and fantastic data, speculating about the tradition of burial, a practice of those who were the primitive inhabitants of this Arví territory. These underground structures rest on the more pronounced peaks and give continuity to the indigenous tradition of using the tutelary hills as observatories and essential references.
      Because these large enclosures are underground they do not negatively impact the natural context of the park. These artificial mounds will house cultural programs such as theatres and recreational and interactive spaces based on complex technical devices to be offered as surprising “findings.”
      It will also serve on the outside as platforms to implement astronomic activities.
      Its interior is rich in the sections that provide various scales in the different enclosures and a series of skylights that ensure spatial effects.

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      為了分配好這三個節點在整個公園表面的分布,設計了一個總體規劃,指導早期階段的建設,但這個總體規劃是靈活的,允許后期的變動。這個計劃受制于一系列的指令,以確保緊扣位置的概念,或是確保每個結構功能的實施,但決不要求限定結構的配置。這三個部件的建設總數是另一個有待時間決定的因素;然而,不變的原則是,領土內建筑物的密度不能威脅到確定的生態和考古學場址。每一個建筑都是以活動劃分半徑范圍的;在一個建筑的半徑范圍變得清晰時,往往是因為鄰近的建筑開始活動了。這是一個與輸電桿塔相類似的結構,公園內所有的操作層都通過路線相互溝通。

      Silletas Park / Juan Felipe Uribe de Bedout第42張圖片

      For the distribution of these three pieces or chess pieces on the entire surface of the park, a master plan was designed that will guide the early stages but has a condition of flexibility. The plan is governed by a set of instructions to ensure the relevance of the concept of location or implementation of each of the structures but that never requires a closed configuration. The sum of these parts is another factor that time will determine; however, what is stipulated as the unchangeable principle is the dissemination of the buildings throughout the territory to avoid concentrations that put the defined ecological and archaeological premises at risk. Each building creates a radius of activity; when the radius of a building becomes invisible, it is because the activity of the neighboring building has begun. It is a system similar to transmission towers, a system that follows the lines of communication to the park in all its operational layers
      客戶:COMFAMA
      費用:21,100.000美元
      面積:92.600平方米
      位置:哥倫比亞-麥德林-圣埃倫娜
      CLIENT: COMFAMA
      COST: 21,100.000 USD
      AREA: 92.600M2
      UBICATION: SANTA ELENA- MEDELLIN- COLOMBIA



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